Thursday, October 31, 2019

Select a Film and Analyze Relationships in the Film Essay

Select a Film and Analyze Relationships in the Film - Essay Example The Phantom hails from a cave found beneath opera house in Paris meant for dance performance. On the other side, Christine is a dancer in the opera house; a situation which hints on their possible encounter. In his cave, the Phantom dreams of controlling the way Opera house operates and this leads him to making attempts of frightening the residents in the opera house. Initially, the Phantom had escaped his master after murdering him then meeting the French girl who brought him to the cave. Since she was a resident at opera house, the film brings out several incidences in which the phantom had taught her to sing perfectly. In this case, the main reason for having a close relationship with Christine was to use condition her to changing the running of the opera house. In personality, his face was full of deformations making him more embarrassed and in dire need for an intimate relationship. This leads him to developing obsession and lust with Christine as he continued teaching her how t o sing. At the instance when new owners took over the control of the house, the Phantom fought for Christine to be put as a lead singer. This shows his sacrifice for the relationship since he ends up causing destruction in the house. The sacrifice and the growing relationship makes Christine believe that her father’s dream for an angel to protect her was coming true through the Phantom. The following is a quote made by Christine, which served as a turning point in their relationship: In most of the cases, the Phantom makes use of non-verbal communication in his relationship with Christine. A mutual attraction arises in the relationship between the two. Phantom manages to teach Christine how to sing and brings her to the limelight, while the latter makes the former more powerful because of the company. The beautiful voice of the Phantom makes Christine attracted besides the chaos he creates at the expense of bringing her to limelight. The Phantom goes to the the

Monday, October 28, 2019

The Problem of Cooperative Society in Marketing Agricultural Product Essay Example for Free

The Problem of Cooperative Society in Marketing Agricultural Product Essay Although co-operation as a form of individual and societal behavior is intrinsic to human organization, the history of modern co-operative forms of organizing dates back to the Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries. The status of which was the first co-operative is under some dispute, but various milestones in the history may be identified. In 1761, the Fenwick Weavers Society was formed in Fenwick, East Ayrshire, Scotland to sell discounted oatmeal to local workers. Its services expanded to include assistance with savings and loans, emigration and education. In 1810, Welsh social reformer Robert Owen, from Newtown in mid-Wales, and his partners purchased New Lanark mill from Owens father-in-law and proceeded to introduce better labor standards including discounted retail shops where profits were passed on to his employees. Owen left New Lanark to pursue other forms of co-operative organization and develop co-op ideas through writing and lecture. Co-operative communities were set up in Glasgow, Indiana and Hampshire, although ultimately unsuccessful. In 1828, William King set up a newspaper, The Cooperator, to promote Owens thinking, having already set up a co-operative store in Brighton. The Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, founded in 1844, is usually considered the first successful co-operative enterprise, used as a model for modern co-ops, following the Rochdale Principles. A group of 28 weavers and other artisans in Rochdale, England set up the society to open their own store selling food items they could not otherwise afford. Within ten years there were over 1,000 co-operative societies in the United Kingdom. Other events such as the founding of a friendly society by the Tolpuddle Martyrs in 1832 were key occasions in the creation of organized labor and consumer movements. From the report of the workshop held on 10th – 11th November 2008 during the 8 the ICA Africa regional assembly at the international conference centre, Abuja. Mr Tom Tar The Executive Secretary of Cooperative Federation of Nigeria, In his introduction of the movement in Nigeria, said the Cooperative Federation of Nigeria (CFN) was formed in 1945 and got registered in 1967. He traced the background of cooperatives in Nigeria to the traditional savings and loans system. He added that following agitation by the Agege Cocoa planters Union in 1907, the study for establishment of formal cooperation was commissioned in 1934. This was followed by the enactment of cooperative legislation in 1935. The early move was in agriculture and latter shifted to marketing following the shift in the Nigerian economy from agriculture to crude oil. He gave the scope of cooperative activities in Nigeria as covering: On population, he said there are about 5million family members covering 20 million house holds. This study is significant because it will produce data on cooperative movement in Nigeria that will be useful to: 1. federal ministry of labour and productivity 2. national union of local government employees 3. state civil service commission 4. federal civil service commission . 5. managers and top executives in organized private sector 6. united nation commission on employment 7. federal ministry of finance 8. Central bank of Nigeria 9. tudents carrying out a research work in this same issue. Cooperative society is the organization of people for an improved agricultural production (Strickland, 1934). Historically in Nigeria, the orientation and growth of cooperatives in Nigeria was related to the development of agricultural export sector by the Colonial Masters who invited an expert in 1934 known as C. F. Strickland who served in India to advice â€Å"on the prospects and desirability of forming cooperatives in Nigeria† (Nkom, 1984). Among the recommendations made by Strickland was the formation of Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives with the aim of pursuing the major export crops, like cocoa, cotton, palm produce farms in the country (Ekpere, 1980). From 1935-37, however, these east while production cooperatives were either transformed or designated cooperative produce marketing societies and unions. From 1960-1972, the role of farmer cooperative in the primary production process has been re-vitalized (Ekpere, 1980). Presently, the cooperative movement is on the increase for the search of sustainability in an agricultural system. Sustainability is possible when we encourage the agricultural activities of cooperatives. The organizational structure of cooperative societies is based on their operation, organization, structure, membership, functions and services (Scope) with the main aim of â€Å"Collecting, processing and marketing specific commodities and providing with inputs, credit and technical services for benefits of members. Therefore, these cooperative organizations are usually arranged into â€Å"tiers†. They are: The primary societies, secondary and Apex organization. Although the term may be used loosely to describe a way of working, a cooperative properly so-called is a legal entity owned and democratically controlled equally by its members. A defining point of a cooperative is that the members have a close association with the enterprise as producers or consumers of its products or services, or as its employees. In some countries, e. g. Finland and Sweden, there are specific forms of incorporation for co-operatives. Cooperatives may take the form of companies limited by shares or by guarantee, partnerships or unincorporated associations. In the USA, cooperatives are often organized as non-capital stock corporations under state-specific cooperative laws. However, they may also be unincorporated associations or business corporations such as limited liability companies or partnerships; such forms are useful when the members want to allow: some members to have a greater share of the control, or some investors to have a return on their capital that exceeds fixed interest, neither of which may be allowed under local laws for cooperatives. Cooperatives often share their earnings with the membership as dividends, which are divided among the members according to their participation in the enterprise, such as patronage, instead of according to the value of their capital shareholdings (as is done by a joint stock company).

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry

Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry Organic Nomenclature Oxford Dictionaries (n.d.) defines nomenclature as â€Å"the devising or choosing of names for things, especially in a science or other discipline†{Dictionaries, #[emailprotected]@author-year}. I believe the easiest way to understand the rules associated with the IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is with examples and so the majority of this essay will be dealing with examples and their explanations. Simek (1999) introduces the systematic naming of an organic compound with a fundamental rule, that to begin naming, one must first identify the parent structure, â€Å"based on naming a molecule’s longest chain of carbons connected by single bonds, whether in a continuous chain or in a ring†. After which, â€Å"all deviations, either multiple bonds or atoms other than carbon and hydrogen, are indicated by prefixes or suffixes according to a specific set of priorities†. Simek (1999) also describes how alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, which are molecules only containing carbon and hydrogen bonded by single bonds only. Alkanes can be subdivided into two main groups, linear and cyclic; linear describes molecules that can be bonded in continuous chains and cyclic describes molecules that are bonded in a ring like structure. The simplest of all to name are straight chain alkanes: CH4Methane C2H6Ethane C3H8Propane C4H10Butane C5H12Pentane C6H14Hexane C7H16Heptane C8H18Octane C9H20Nonane C10H22Decane C11H24Undecane C12H26Dodecane In order to name cycloalkanes, the prefix â€Å"cyclo† is used: C3H6CyclopropaneC4H8Cyclobutane C5H10Cycloheptane Nomenclature of Branched Chain Alkanes University of California, Davis (n.d.) describes how â€Å"An alkyl group is formed by removing one hydrogen from the alkane chain, and is described by the formula CnH2n+1. The removal of this hydrogen results in a stem change from-aneto-yl.† E.g. Propane to propyl. In order to systematically name a molecule, first identify the parent structure. In this case the longest carbon chain is 6-Carbons long, as a result the parent structure is Hexane. The carbons in the chain are numbered from the end giving the substituents (The group substituted in place of hydrogen, in this case the substituent is CH3-Methyl) the lowest possible number The substituents or functional groups that are attached to the parent chain are then named. There are two, one-carbon long alkyl groups and as a result take methane, drop the -ane and replace it with –yl ­, giving methyl. N.B. If the alkyl group is two-carbons long (CH3CH2), the name would be ethyl, CH3CH2CH2- propyl, CH3CH2CH2CH2- butyl. Number the substituents to identify their positions relative to the parent structure. Here, substituent positions are 2 and 4. Hardinger (2008) emphasises that a number must be assigned to each substituent, along with its prefix (di-, tri-, terta-, penta-, etc.), even if the same substituents are present in the molecule In this example 2,4-dimethyl. Position numbers for substituents are ordered numerically, substituent names are ordered alphabetically (prefixes such as di-, tri-, tetra-, etc., are excluded from alphabetical ordering, but cyclo, iso and neo are included) and are then written before the parent name. If these rules are adhered to, the molecule is named as: 2,4-dimethylhexane. Nomenclature of Alkenes Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons and differ from alkanes, as they have at least one C=C double bond. Alkenes have the general formula CnH2n, which is the same general formula for cycloalkanes. Following the same basic rules as before, identify the parent structure. Here, the longest carbon chain is 7-Carbons long, thus the parent structure is heptane. The molecule is numbered so that the substituents have the lowest possible position numbers. The substituents are then named. As the molecule has a double bond, it is identified as an alkene and as the parent structure is heptane, it is named heptene. However, take into account there is also a methyl group. Numbering the positions of the substituents gives, 2-methyl and 1,3-diene, since the molecule contains one methyl group and two double bonds. Position numbers are ordered numerically, the substituents ordered alphabetically and both written before the parent name. Due to the fact the double bonds use a suffix (-ene is at the end of the name), 1,3-diene is not ordered before 2-methyl. Systematically naming the molecule gives it an IUPAC name of: 2-methylhepta-1,3-diene. Nomenclature of Haloalkanes Haloalkanes are organic compounds, where an alkane contains at least one halogen. Haloalkanes have a general formula of CnH2n+1X (X=Halogen e.g. Cl) In order to name haloalkanes, the –ine of the halogen name is removed, leaving the prefix (e.g. fluorine becomes floro-, chlorine becomes chloro-, etc.). The same rules are then applied to systematically name the haloalkane. Nomenclature of Alkynes Alkynes are unsaturated hydrocarbons, as they contain at least one C≠¡C bond. Alkynes have the general formula CnH2n-2. Again identify the parent structure, the longest carbon chain is 7-Carbons long and therefore the parent structure is identified as heptane. The molecule is numbered so substituent positions have the lowest possible numbers. Here the substituents are: two methyl groups, one chloro group and one C≠¡C triple bond. The longest chain is 7-Carbons long and contains a C≠¡C triple bond; therefore, it is identified as heptyne. The substituent positions are numbered giving: 6,6-dimethyl, 4-chloro and hept-2-yne. Finally position numbers are ordered numerically, substituent names are ordered alphabetically and are written in front of the parent name. The molecule is given an IUPAC name: 4-chloro-6,6-dimethylhept-2-yne. Nomenclature of Alcohols Alcohols are organic compounds containing at least one –OH group bonded to it. The hydroxyl group replaces a hydrogen on a carbon and because of this, alcohols have the general formula CnH2n+1OH. The parent structure for this molecule is identified as octane, since the longest carbon chain is 8-Carbons long. The molecule is numbered, giving the lowest possible numbers to substituents. Substituents in this molecule are: one hydroxyl group and one chloro group. The longest carbon chain is 8-Carbons long and since it contains a hydroxyl group, it is identified as an alcohol. The position numbers for substituents are: 4-chloro and octan-2-ol. Position numbers are ordered numerically, substituent names are ordered alphabetically and are placed before the parent name (the hydroxyl group identifies the molecule as an alcohol, as such, it uses the suffix –ol instead of the prefix hydroxy-). The molecule has an IUPAC name: 4-chlorooctan-2-ol. Nomenclature of Amines Amines are derivatives of ammonia (NH3), the replacing of one or more hydrogens in ammonia with organic compound(s) creates an amine. Replacing one hydrogen, will create a primary amine, two hydrogens – secondary amine, three hydrogens – tertiary amine. Methylamine (primary) Dimethylamine (secondary) Trimethylamine (tertiary) When naming amines, the longest carbon chain including the amine group is determined and numbered so to give the amine group the lowest possible position number. If the molecule is a secondary amine, the longest carbon chain is used as the parent structure and the other chain is denoted with N-alkyl (if both chains are of equal length, the molecule can be named dialkylamine). If the molecule is a tertiary amine, like secondary amines the longest carbon chain is used as the parent structure and the other chains are denoted with N-alkyl (if all chains are of equal length, the molecule can be named trialkylamine). Nomenclature of Ethers University of California, Davis (n.d.) describes ethers as, organic compounds that contain two alkyl groups bonded to an oxygen atom (e.g. CH3CH2OCH3). Ethers only use the prefix alkoxy-, where the –ane of the alkane is removed. According to University of California, Davis (n.d.) the prefix alkoxy- is always treated as a substituent, because there is no suffix for ethers. When naming the molecule the shorter carbon chain becomes the alkoxy- substituent (e.g. methoxy) and the longer carbon chain is identified as the parent structure. Nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones Both aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds that contain the carbonyl group C=O. Aldehydes feature at the end of a carbon chain (e.g. CH3CH2CH2CHO), whereas, ketones are part of the carbon chain (e.g. CH3CH2COCH3) When naming aldehydes it is important to note that they exist only on the ends of carbon chains and therefore do not need a position number included in the name, the aldehyde is presumed to be position 1. Aldehyde’s use the suffix –al in naming and replace the –e at the end of alkanes (e.g. Butane becomes butanal). Ketones use the suffix –one in naming and replace the –e at the end of alkanes (e.g. pentane becomes pentanone); however, unlike aldehydes ketones need position numbers, as there are multiple positions for the C=O bond (with the exception of simple ketones like propanone, as there is only one position for the carbonyl group). Nomenclature of Carboxylic Acids Carboxylic acids are organic compounds that contain the carboxyl group COOH. Like aldehydes carboxylic acids are only present at the end of carbon chains and therefore, do not have positions numbers. Carboxylic acids use the suffix –oic acid and replace the –e at the end of alkanes (e.g. Ethane becomes ethanoic acid). N.B. One must be aware, that although there are systematic IUPAC names for all molecules, some molecules have common names e.g. ethanoic acid used to be known as acetic acid and is most commonly known as vinegar. Nomenclature of Esters Esters are formed from reacting a carboxylic acids with alcohols. University of California, Davis (n.d.) briefly explains, that esters are named by treating the alkyl chain from the alcohol as a substituent and the carboxylic acid forms the parent structure, where the –oic acid part is replaced with –oate (e.g. Ethanoic acid becomes ethanoate). Nomenclature of Aromatic Compounds Simek (1999) describes, how aromatic compounds are derived from benzene rings (C6H6), by replacing one hydrogen with a substituent group. The removal of one hydrogen from the benzene results in the phenyl group. When naming aromatic compounds the parent name benzene is used and appropriate prefixes. Priority Rules of Nomenclature When the molecule being named has multiple functional groups and substituent groups, the group with highest priority is numbered so it has the lowest possible position number. This list based on Simek’s (1999) priority table, shows priorities from highest to lowest: Carboxylic Acids Esters Aldehydes Ketones Alcohols Amines Alkenes Alkynes Alkyls Ethers Halo Compounds Aromatic Compounds References: Simek, J., 1999.IUPAC_Handout. [e-book] San Luis Obispo: California Polytechnic State University. Available at: http://www.angelo.edu/faculty/kboudrea/organic/IUPAC_Handout.pdf [Accessed 10 Feb. 14] Lam, D., n.d. [online] Nomenclature of Benzenes – Chemwiki. Available at: http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Organic_Chemistry/Hydrocarbons/Aromatics/Nomenclature_of_Benzenes [Accessed 13 Feb. 14] Oxford Dictionaries. N.d. [online]nomenclature: definition of nomenclature in Oxford dictionary (British World English). Available at: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/nomenclature [Accessed 10 Feb. 14] Hardinger, S., 2008. Nomenclature_02. [e-book] Los Angeles: University of California. Available at: http://www.chem.ucla.edu/harding/notes/nomenclature_02.pdf [Accessed 10 Feb. 14] Clark, J. 2000. [online] Naming aromatic compounds. Available at: http://www.chemguide.co.uk/basicorg/conventions/names3.html [Accessed 12 Feb. 14]

Thursday, October 24, 2019

life and death :: essays research papers

What It Takes to Overcome Suffering When dealing with hardship in one’s life, people deal with it in diverse ways. One may overcome suffering through their own thoughts and ventilation, or by through their relationships with themselves, other people, or even a higher being. Alice Walker, an African American writer, narrows the scope of suffering to a single, courageous woman in her novel, The Color Purple. Through this remarkable woman, Celie, Walker illustrates that even when life can’t get any worse, one can overcome impossible odds. Alice Walker illustrates through Celie’s triumph over Mr. _____, one overcomes suffering through the presence of strong positive relationships. The obstacles that Celie overcomes are indicative of the relationships that she acquires. Through the relationships that Celie forms with God, Sofia, Nettie, Shug, and the ultimate relationship she develops with herself, she is able to overcome the abuse and hardship that is present in her life and her past. Celie’s upbringing was not one, that which someone would call typical. She must care for her brothers and sisters, and is already burdened with the cooking and cleaning of the household because of her mother’s deteriorating health. And if that is not a harsh struggle enough, Celie is being continuously raped by the man she knows to be her father. Celie gives birth to two of her father’s children, whom he sells after Celie gives birth. She is tormented with the thoughts of her two born children, and why these horrible things happen to her. Celie is mistreated and abused day to day, and accepts this as the norm childhood. Not only is the young, innocent Celie raped Ventura 2 again and again, she is beat by this man, when she does something he does not approve of. â€Å"He beat me today cause he say I winked at a boy in church† (Walker 5). She is victimized by this man repeatedly and cannot help but only wonder why. She is thought of as nothing but a sexual object, and is taken advantage of over and over. She is stepped on repeatedly by her stepfather and is threatened not to say anything. â€Å"You better not never tell nobody but God. It’s kill your mammy† (Walker 1). She is silenced not to tell anyone about her explicit rapes because she knows it would kill her mother, and therefore only expresses her hardship to God. This poor young girl deals with hardship most adults do not even encounter, but handles it with her own prerogative.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Tool Control

So, it’s about 1700 and my flight has just landed and everything went pretty well. We are closing up the bird and getting ready to go home. The helicopter is all tied up and wiped down and everything is start to look good. Then some last minute maintenance comes up and the VELOs need to be tightened an blade pins need to be safety wired. Shortly thereafter, about 2 hours because I’m a retard and safety wired the VELOs instead of tightening them, but that’s another story. We finish the job I come in to sign off the MAFs and BAM!I set my cranial down on the floor or desk I don’t recall and I didn’t see it again until the next morning about 70ft above the hangar floor. Now I know the importance of the tool control program I am about to, in detail, explain to you. Hopefully my mistakes will not be repeated. There is a tool control program active in every shop. This program is very important to the safety of the helicopter and the men and women that main tain them and fly them. This program is the responsibility of each and every mechanic, avionics man, air framer, flight equipment men and women, pilots and crew chiefs.Basically, the tool control program established in the United States Marine Corps is the responsibility of every member of the squadron. This program depends on each individual to perform their jobs carefully with the safety of themselves, their fellow marines and the aircraft always in mind. This program cannot afford small mistakes, and definitely no big mistakes. My experience with tool control is a little closer than most would want to come. I have terrible short term memory and it shows in my work.Whether it be in replacing the number one boost reservoir cap after I serviced it, before a flight, or it be in remembering to not leave my cranial just lying around on the shop floor and then never coming back to pick it up or put it in its proper place. My experiences have been numerous and cannot be tolerated on the Flight line, in the squadron or in the Marine Corps. My actions could have in a direct or indirect way been the reason another marine or myself are not here alive today. Thankfully my actions were being closely monitored by the NCOs and other members of the shop .No one was hurt because of my actions and I have to say I am not surprised. The tool control program is also designed to prevent anything awful from happening in the case that a young inexperienced crew chief in training loses two or three rags, his cranial or any other tool he may have while performing a Daily and turnaround inspection or just signing off MAFs. Then never coming in to pick his cranial up and put it in the correct place. The way the tool control program in the Marine corps is set up, it makes it almost impossible to lose tools.It is dummy proof. Almost. Once that tool is lost they have a very effective way of retrieving that tool. The first step in insuring that tools do not get lost is an inventory list. I t is a list of individual items in a tool container. It identifies the tool location within the container by panel and item number. Each tool is etched with a number. When tool sizes do not permit etching the inventory list is noted to draw attention to those small tools. These tools are checked out via a log book kept in each shop witch is updated and checked three times a day.Once in the morning prior to starting any maintenance, again during shift change and again before securing night crew the logs are checked. Too make it easy to identify each tool the Navy and Marine Corps have set up a standardized way of labeling (etching) each individual tool that is large enough to etch. The order the numbers etched on each tool goes like this: First number is the organization code, the second number is a work center code and the third number is the Tool Container number.When the work center is authorized more than one of a certain type of tool container (ie: Pre Flight Kits) the number wi ll be extended to identify the container. The tools that are too small to etch are kept in a special container with a special label affixed to it saying â€Å"CONTAINS TOOLS TOO SMALL TO MARK†. Tool issue is not an issue taken lightly because accountability of all tools is absolutely necessary to ensure none are lost. Special and common tools alike fall under this rule that all tools are accounted for.Even things as small as goggles and sound suppressors to things as big as Ladders and Hydraulic Servicing Units need tool tags from specific boxes to be checked out. Hand tools and common tools fall into two groups. They have the Eighty percent (80%) group which consists of tools required to complete eighty percent of the maintenance tasks. These tools are found in the checkout boxes for the shop. They also have the 20 percent (20%) group which is consist of tools not so commonly used inside a box in the shop. These tools can only be checked out individually and a tool tag is re quired for each individual tool.Another reason why the tool control program in the Marine Corps is so successful is because of the thorough methods we have in place that prevent us from completely losing a tool. If ANY tool is found to be missing or lost at any stage of the inventory process, an immediate search of the area will be conducted. We look everywhere we had been with the tool and everywhere we might have been. Once that has been done and the tool is still missing after extensive searching you notify your work center supervisor and another search, probably with a few more marines will be conducted.If the tool still can not be located your work center supervisor will notify Quality Assurance, Maintenance Control and the Aircraft maintenance Officer (AMO). In the mean time you will initiate a lost or missing tool report and give it to your work center supervisor. You will give a detailed statement of what happened all the way up until you realized the tool was lost and you w ill sign the statement for Quality Assurance. Maintenance Control puts a hold on all Air Traffic until the tool is found or Quality Assurance gives the good to go for flights to continue.The AMO is notified by Maintenance Control. You just standby and wait for the hammer. The meticulous tool check out procedures are another way to keep track of all tools in a shop. The procedures are as follows: You open the tool container and do a thorough inspection of the tool container to be checked out, the condition of the tool container and missing or broken tools in the container are what you are looking for. You want to sure all devices used to secure tools in the tool container are not worn out or broken or missing.Inspect the tool container for FOD. You will be looking for things like safety wire, cotter pins, pieces of attaching hardware and pieces of broken tools. You want to ensure that all tools are wiped clean of any foreign fluids or grease. Also, very important, ensure that every t ool is marked and belongs in that particular tool container. After inspecting the container you take it to an authorized member of the shop to inspect again and sign out in the tool container log book. When you bring the tool container back after maintenance is inished you do the process all over again. Including inspections, and signing the tool container back in to the shop. If at any point in your inspections you find a discrepancy in the condition of a tool there are steps you need to take. First of all you do not accept the tool container from the shop. The tool room will initiate a broken or missing tool report. The unserviceable tool should be replaced by a new one almost immediately. If a tool should break while performing maintenance there are also steps you need to follow.First you do an immediate search of the area and collect all the broken pieces of the tool. You initiate a broken tool report. The broken tool will be replaced by a new one and that tool will be marked ap propriately. Tool Control saves lives by preventing numerous hazardous situations from ever happening. It saves time by keeping track of all tools which aids in finding lost or missing tools. The tool Control program saves money by keeping a close eye on all the tools in a shop preventing lost and missing tools from ever occurring.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

W.E.B. DuBois and the Equality of Education essays

W.E.B. DuBois and the Equality of Education essays The United States of America has always stood as the land of opportunity, the land of equality; however, the African American journey toward cultural equality has been a complex and laborious one that still continues today. The passing of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments in the second half of the 19th century did not instantly bring about equal rights and liberties. Instead, the country remained solidly divided upon racial lines which favored white people, and were only solidified with Supreme Court decisions, and the individual states endorsement of the Jim Crow laws. However, not all African Americans believed the answer to equality was in desegregation. William Edward Burghardt DuBois, founder of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (N.A.A.C.P.), believed that the current separate but equal policies could be used for the advancement of the community as a whole, and integrating the schools would only have a negative impact on black childrens educations. He asserted that the best way for blacks to hope to achieve equality with other Americans would be through concentrated pursuit of the equal portion of the clause. In the 1950s DuBois own N.A.A.C.P. took on the Plessy decision articulating that African Americans would no longer compromise. The initial onset of the enforcement of the decision brought the great hardships to black students that DuBois had been so fearful of. Fifty years have passed since the desegregation of Americas schools began, yet racial divisions still exist; it is important to consider perhaps DuBois was correct. Before Brown v. Board and even Plessy v. Ferguson, an improved system of education was on the rise for African Americans. In Alabama, in 1867, constitutional laws agreed to provide equal opportunity for both blacks and whites, and also did not require segregated schools (Tozer, 157). The rise in black participation in voting and voic...

Monday, October 21, 2019

The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings Essays - Fiction, Angel

The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings Essays - Fiction, Angel The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings Response to essay on The Very Old Man With Enormous Wings What does this piece reveal about people's attitudes towards religion? Why do the townspeople treat the old man in the way that they do? Do they respond differently to the spider girl than to the old man? Is there evidence that he is really an angel? Does that make a difference? Why is the subtitle of the piece A Tale for Children? Why would children be the intended audience for this piece? Is it intended to be educational? If so, in what way? Explain the ending a bit more. What does this piece have to do with life after death as you bring up in your essay? Is an angel the same as a ghost? What is an angel? What purpose are they thought to serve in human life? Does this angel serve that purpose? If not, does he serve any purpose? Does he fail at his objective? Explain. Why is the piece called A Very Old Man With Enormous Wings rather than An Angel? Any suggestions? Do the people exploit him? Explain. Any connection between the old man's arrival and the child's recovery? Is it simply coincidence? How do you respond to the parents' displaying the old man to make money off of him? What does that say about them, about their attitudes towards religion, towards God's work.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

20 Exploratory Essay Topics What to Write about the Nature of Synthesis

20 Exploratory Essay Topics What to Write about the Nature of Synthesis Welcome to our first guide, 20 topics for an exploratory essay on the nature of synthesis, in order to help with writing an exploratory essay right away. You’ll also find a sample essay on one of those topics in this guide. The essay itself would prove to be very useful as it will assist you in understanding how an exploratory essay is really written. After this guide, we recommend checking out our second and final guide, pro guide for an exploratory essay and don’t forget our 10 facts on the nature of synthesis to into the topic. There, you’ll learn exceptional techniques, methodologies and formats that define the hallmarks of a perfect exploratory essay outline. Even if you do know how to write an exploratory essay, we recommend you go through this guide. You might find tons of useful information. Without further ado, here are 20 topic ideas on the nature of synthesis: The Designs by Nature for Her Own Purpose: An Exploratory Essay about the Nature of Synthesis Natural Product Synthesis: The Source of Inspiration for the Medically Relevant Scaffolds’ Development Properties of Natural Products Unveiled: The Reflection of Natural Products in the Environment Why Living Organisms are Spending Their Energy and Matter to Create Chemical Architectures Have Become a Delight for Organic Chemists. An Exploratory Essay on Recent Synthetic Methods that Allow Atom and Step Economies to Prosper Exploring the Total Synthesis of Putative 11-epi-Lyngbouilloside Aglycon The Representation of Non-Enzymatic Metabolics of ALA by PhytoPs The History and the Art and Science of Natural Product Synthesis The Impact of Natural Product Synthesis on Medicine and Biological Science An Exploratory Essay on the Revolutionary 1828 Discovery Made by Wohler in Germany Studies on Tumor Promoters: An Exploratory Essay on The Synthesis of Phorbol In-Depth Study on The Recognition of Human Ability to Probe, Isolate and Create Naturally Occurring Molecules The Preparation of Natural Products through Total Synthesis and Semisynthesis Natural Product Synthesis: How Cosmetics, Foods and Dietary Supplements are Produced from Natural Sources Rather than Artificial Ingredients The Significance of Secondary Metabolites which Enable Organisms to Have an Evolutionary Advantage The Therapeutic Benefits of Natural Products that Became an Inspiration for One-half of U.S. FDA Approved Drugs National Product: A Synthesized Organic Compound that’s Produced by a Living Organism Primary Metabolites: Natural Products Having an Intrinsic Function that’s Essential to the Survival of Organisms that Produce Them The Significance of Primary Metabolites: The Basic Building Blocks of Life The Functions of Secondary Metabolites and How They Act You might have probably shortlisted 2 to 3 topics already. However, before attempting to write, take a look at our sample essay below. Sample Exploratory Essay: The Significance of Primary Metabolites: The Basic Building Blocks of Life In the organic chemistry industry, natural products are defined as purified organic compounds which are produced by primary or secondary metabolites ― isolated from their natural sources. Primary metabolites are quite essential to the survival of living organisms. Primary metabolites are the building blocks of life since they include nucleic acids, lipids, carbohydrates, and amino acids. They are also responsible to create photosynthetic and respiratory enzymes, which are necessary for proper enzyme function. In fact, the basic structures of cells and organisms we find on Earth are composed of primary metabolites. You might now truly understand how significant they are. Speaking of enzymes, folks   of the Vitamin B family are also included in primary metabolites (enzymatic cofactors, to be precise). Vitamin B2 acts as a coenzyme for carbohydrate metabolism. Vitamin B2 is a necessity for redox reactions (not all of them, but many). The same can be said for Vitamin B3, along with the electron transport. Vitamin B5, a constituent of coenzyme, can be found in carbohydrates, fatty acids, amino acid metabolism and polypeptides. Vitamin B6 is also involved in amino acid metabolism, whereas Vitamin B12 becomes essential for fatty acid and methionine production. In fact, the archives of our genetic information, DNA and RNA, are also comprised of primary metabolites (nucleic acid). By now, you’re well aware of how significant primary metabolites are for life and survival. Without these primary metabolites, life on earth would cease to exist since the building blocks of living organisms are found in primary metabolites, which we have very thoroughly discussed above. However, what isn’t really necessary for a living organism to have are secondary metabolites. Studies show that they aren’t really necessary for a living organism’s survival, however, they do help fight diseases, illnesses[4]   etc. There has been controversy about secondary metabolites and nobody really knows why they are produced by living organisms. There is speculation, however, that they provide an advantage in terms of competition with organisms that produce secondary metabolites. Many scientists have also come to the conclusion that secondary metabolites are as important as primary ones but research shows otherwise. Perhaps, it’s a lack of studies or something else, no matter; this is why I believe primary metabolites are significant and important for living organisms. References: All natural. Nature Chemical Biology. 3 (7): 351. July 2007. doi:10.1038/nchembio0707-351. PMID 17576412  https://dx.doi.org/10.1038%2Fnchembio0707-351 Samuelson G (1999). Drugs of Natural Origin: A Textbook of Pharmacognosy. Taylor Francis Ltd Websters Revised Unabridged Dictionary (1913). Natural product. Free Online Dictionary and C. G. Merriam Co.  thefreedictionary.com/natural+product Williams DA, Lemke TL (2002). Chapter 1: Natural Products. Foyes Principles of Medicinal Chemistry (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams Wilkins. p. 25. ISBN 0-683-30737-1. Hanson JR (2003). Natural Products: the Secondary Metabolite. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 0-85404-490-6 Bhat SV, Nagasampagi BA, Sivakumar M (2005). Chemistry of Natural Products. Berlin ; New York: Springer. ISBN 81-7319-481-5. Maplestone RA, Stone MJ, Williams DH (June 1992). The evolutionary role of secondary metabolitesa review. Gene. 115 (1–2): 151–7.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

The South Coast Plaza by Segerstrom Family Essay

The South Coast Plaza by Segerstrom Family - Essay Example The plaza has recorded highest sales of 1.5 billion dollars in America. Since March 1967, South Coast has overcome various difficulties and challenges. In the beginning, it started as bean fields and as time went by it grew bigger. Various famous groups joined this party thereafter. From 1973 to 1979, additional stores were added for Bullock’s, I. Magnin, Nordstrom, and Sakes Fifth Avenue. Since Segerstrom family had a bigger dream, they never stopped developing it. From 1986, South Coast began its largest expansion and grew on the streets and by the end of 1987; it was totally a unique place. Because of its expansion and various famous stores, South Coast improved its level from a local plaza to a standard national mall. In May 2007, it had a final reconstruction that resulted in re-opening of Bloomingdale’s. However, it is difficult to examine every store in the area. The South Coast Plaza has four architecture parts. Beginning with the west wing between Fairview Road and Bear Street is the furniture area that contains various famous furniture stores such as Marcy’s Home Furniture Store and Crate and Barrel Home Store. The largest part of this Plaza is situated in the middle surrounded by malls like Macy’s Nordstrom, Bloomingdale’s, and Sears. The east wing of the plaza is built for official businesses and on the north wing, there is a small part called the South Coast Plaza Village that hosts many restaurants for the visitors and locals. Currently, South Coast is the largest malls in the world, and its reputation and fame have attracted a number ranging from millions of people across the world every year. With this regard, it has become national scenic spots. When compared to Yellowstone National Park and many other places, it is a preferable area by the visitors from Asia. Almost a half of travel groups from China tend to go to the South Coast. It is nearly 14 hours flight from China Lax. Most of the visitors from China want to see the greatest mall on the first day since the place majorly attracts them because of its magic.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Power and Knowledge In Edward Said's Orientalism Essay

Power and Knowledge In Edward Said's Orientalism - Essay Example Basically, E. Said proposed to view the western policy towards the East as colonial, imperial discourse created by means of manipulating knowledge - that is why the problem of interrelation between knowledge and power in Said's work is very important. All in all, Edward Said's views may be called unique because he is not only interested in politics from a scientific viewpoint - he, in fact, makes politics use the results of research, that is - scientific knowledge. He clearly shows that he is far from both politicization of thinking and ensuring the "neutrality" of scientists. His intellectual is politicized, yet it happens not because he makes science a servant of politics, but - and this is important for the understanding of the scholar's system of beliefs - because politics for Said is the ally of science as far as the freedom of thinking and autonomy of scientific activity are concerned. The core of E. Said's approach is to de-crown the myth of Orientalism being a homogenous theory based on clearly defined concepts. According to him, Orientalism "is a style of thought based upon ontological and epistemological distinction made between 'the Orient' and (most of the time) 'the Occident'. Thus a very large mass of writers, among who are poet, novelists, philosophers, political theorists, economists, and imperial administrators, have accepted the basic distinction between East and West as the starting point for elaborate accounts concerning the Orient, its people, customs, 'mind', destiny, and so on". Said interprets events rather than openly states his opinion, and this certainly correlates with "the death of the author" theory proclaimed by post-modernism. The minimised role of author ensures the collision and interrelation between different, often polar opinions, in E. Said's Orientalism; and it is a great step towards "polylogic" knowledge as opposed to monologic. For Said, monologic knowledge is associated, above all, with the West, but at the same time with the Eastern counter-attack against this monologism using the same monologic principles. That is why, the western expansion towards the East, which is obviously the embodiment of power and domination, is inseparable from knowledge. Said proves that metaphysically, comprehension (the process of intellectual capturing) is related to occupation, and personal enrichment in the form of becoming more open-minded and widening of one's scope - to imperialistic ambitions of the West. My contention is that Orientalism is fundamentally a political doctrine willed over the Orient because the Orient was weaker than the West, which elided the Orient's difference with its weakness. . . . As a cultural apparatus Orientalism is all aggression, activity, judgment, will-to-truth, and knowledge (Said 1995, p. 204) It is not a coincidence that we mentioned Said's idea about the interrelations between science and politics. In his Orientalism, science, and at the first place the science that serves political needs of the country, is associated with the West, same as power. He therefore attempts to discover a complicated system of ties existing between science (knowledge) and power, and to show to what extent power may need knowledge, and at the same time to what extent knowledge may be a form of power. This

Fire detection and suppression systems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Fire detection and suppression systems - Essay Example This can be in form of sirens, flash lights, telephone calls and a signal sent to the city’s fire department. It comprises the following parts: The alarm system is composed of mainly the control panel, power supply, zone feature, input devices and the output devices. The input devices are the sensory zones of the alarm hence they include the smoke and heat detectors. If the signal is high enough, the control panel would provide notifications about the danger posed by the changes in the detectors. However, some signals may require immediate attention, for example a fire alert in a specific room of a building. In such an instance, the zone feature is programmed to activate instant sprinklers that would put off the fire. Finally, the output devices include the horns, voice announcements and flash lights that indicate danger (Hirschler, 1992). Fire alarm systems are very important in notifying the occupants of the building under fire to vacate. They are designed to use both sound and visual warnings hence ensuring evacuation of the buildings thus saving lives. In the recent models of the alarm systems, they are programmed to inform an individual the specific location of the fire hence giving him or her right direction of the nearest exit (Sturzenbecker, Adams & Burnside, 2012). The alarm systems assist the fire fighters to easily locate the building under fire thus facilitating quick response to the fire. In addition, the alarm system may produce a human voice that informs them of the location of the fire hence.

Very easy no essay Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Very easy no essay - Assignment Example y-four year olds owning their own businesses: "The trend may dilute corporate pools of promotable junior managers but provide a needed infrastructure for corporate outsourcing" (Keaveney 102-103). Which paraphrase is acceptable? A necessary infrastructure for corporate outsourcing is provided even though the trend of members of the younger generation owning their own businesses is weakening the availability of potential executives (Keaveney 102-103). Increasingly, members of the younger generation are becoming entrepreneurs rather than making themselves available to work their way up the management scale for an individual company; the difficulties this may cause for companies is offset by the services as subcontractors they can provide as outsourcing becomes more necessary and more common (Keaveney 102-103). The current fashion of members of the younger generation owning their own businesses might water down the numbers of available potential low-ranking administrators; however, it might also supply a necessary means at a basic level for business to subcontract (Keaveney 102-103). The original quotation from Bob Simpson on a website reads "Although some people believe the Lamborgotti Fasterossa is the fastest car in the world, others name the Ferrari as the fastest." Which is an unfair and misleading use of this quotation? You are using material from a newspaper article. There is no author given, but the title of the article is "Was Emerson lying to his constituents?," published in the  Edmonton Journal  on Feb. 14, 2006, on p. A2. Which is the proper parenthetical citation for this

Thursday, October 17, 2019

First Trip to Mosque in America Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

First Trip to Mosque in America - Essay Example The carpet must be kept in a neat condition since Muslims should try to offer their prayers in the Mosque. In the middle of the Mosque, a large chandelier was suspended that is only opened during special occasions. Some pictures of the Makah and Medina (holy cities in Islam) are displayed in the front wall along with a digital clock. The microphone that is used by the Imam, a person appointed to lead the prayers, is situated underneath the clock. To the left, people can refer to a timetable of prayers on a bulletin board. Towards the end of the prayer hall, a partition is situated because sometimes women like to come and offer their prayers in the Mosque. Since, Islam strictly prohibits the mingling of both sexes; a partition is used to divide the men and women. The primary purpose of the Mosque is to allow Muslims to offer their prayers, or Salah. Salah is an Arabic term that is defined as connection. During Salah, Muslims get an opportunity to connect to God, thank him for his merc ies, and fulfill their mandatory duty as believers of Allah. Salah is held five times a day, whole year round, and as usual lead by the Imam. The Imam is the leader of Salah, and people are lined behind him rows upon rows. Most of the Imams are hafiz, a person who has memorized the holy Quran. Imams are required to dress in a religious code along with keeping a beard. Most Imams also specialize in reciting the Quran in their own unique voice. Since Muslims are obliged to pray five times a day, it is very beneficial for them to attend the prayers in the Mosque because they get rewarded twenty-seven times more. Muslim men should try to attend Mosques frequently, Friday, is a day that is reserved for all Muslim men to come and offer their prayers. When I visited during Friday, a great scholar from Pakistan came and delivered a great speech or sermon. His sermon was about Hajj, the holy pilgrimage Muslims are required to do if financially stable, and his words were both powerful and mov ing. The Friday ritual began around late afternoon with the services held at 1:30P.M. When Muslim men enter the mosque, they greet each other with an â€Å"Assalamu-Alaikum,† that translates to be â€Å"peace is upon you.† After greeting each other, they go to perform wudhu, which consists of washing the hands, feet, and mouth. Wudhu is an obligation on every Muslim because it is an act of purification, and is required before praying. After they are done performing wudhu, the men go in the main prayer hall and wait for the Imam to come. In the span of thirty minutes the day I visited, the Mosque was full with people waiting outside to get in.   The experience was profound because the scholar talked about the aspects of Hajj, and how it can bring all Muslims closer to Allah. He reminded the crowd that this life is short, and no one has any guarantee whether he can live the next day, so it is advisable to perform Hajj as soon as possible. In addition, he understood the fact that people get caught up in the worldly affairs, so he told his audience to take some time out for Islam. Furthermore, he read some verses from the Quran that talked about the fulfillments of Hajj. His concern was that most Muslims underestimate to requirement to perform Hajj, even though Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam. If a Muslim can not perform it due to financial circumstances, than he would not be held accountable for it. However, in recent years people have found reasons to excuse themselves from this

EC Policy on VAT Assessment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

EC Policy on VAT Assessment - Essay Example Nonetheless, the players in the financial services sector have emerged in recent years as among the largest groups of companies in the world and, despite this fragmentation, financial service companies as a group have become by far the most profitable in the world. For example, the UK-based financial services conglomerate HSBC and Barclays are among the world's largest corporations. For this reason, the European Commission in the 1990s took up a plan to include financial services and insurances in the value added tax (VAT) system for all member states, with the primary purpose of making the markets for financial services efficient. The plan was embodied in the Sixth VAT Directive of EC, part of the Financial Services Action Plan which was issued in 1977. Under the EC Treaty, all member states are obliged to adopt EC Directives into their own statutes although they can choose the forms or methods by which to implement them1. The 1977 VAT directive, however, was met with hostility by m ember states, which were reluctant to implement the tax measure. This paper tracks the difficulty of modernizing the VAT system for financial and insurance services for EU that would be acceptable to all and would advance the EC policy of promoting integration and competition in this industry for Europe's future growth in prosperity and employment. A critical evaluation of the compromise measure proposed by EC is in order as a way of contributing to the consultation process being conducted by the Commission to craft a more realistic and more acceptable VAT system for financial and insurance services. Thus, the paper attempts to present an opinion on whether the new VAT system proposed by EC will be more successful than the first. Problems & Issues Financial markets have developed in such a way that even interpretation of classic terms like credit gives rise to difficulties. The Commission services have been confronted with an increasing number of cases where economic operators and member states had problems in interpreting the definitions of exempt services under the Sixth VAT Directive. These cases often reflect the complexity of financial and insurance products, extending to questions such as whether there is a taxable supply and where the place of supply is located. The most serious objections to the imposition of VAT on financial services and insurance firms were the absence of a readily identifable mechanism for efficiently implementing the tax proposal, and the increase in consumer credit that it is expected to generate. Another issue raised against the imposition of VAT on customers of financial and insurance services was the way it offends political sensibilities2. The financial services industry, being engaged in the management of money, involves public interest because a bank run, for example, can harm a national economy. Thus, governments of EU member states carefully regulate the operation of these companies, such that in UK, the Financial Services Authority has been clothed with greater powers to go after financial services firms that mishandle their affairs and funds3. The difficulty for EC consisted mainly in the impossibility of establishing taxable amounts and the amounts of deductible VAT without

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Very easy no essay Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Very easy no essay - Assignment Example y-four year olds owning their own businesses: "The trend may dilute corporate pools of promotable junior managers but provide a needed infrastructure for corporate outsourcing" (Keaveney 102-103). Which paraphrase is acceptable? A necessary infrastructure for corporate outsourcing is provided even though the trend of members of the younger generation owning their own businesses is weakening the availability of potential executives (Keaveney 102-103). Increasingly, members of the younger generation are becoming entrepreneurs rather than making themselves available to work their way up the management scale for an individual company; the difficulties this may cause for companies is offset by the services as subcontractors they can provide as outsourcing becomes more necessary and more common (Keaveney 102-103). The current fashion of members of the younger generation owning their own businesses might water down the numbers of available potential low-ranking administrators; however, it might also supply a necessary means at a basic level for business to subcontract (Keaveney 102-103). The original quotation from Bob Simpson on a website reads "Although some people believe the Lamborgotti Fasterossa is the fastest car in the world, others name the Ferrari as the fastest." Which is an unfair and misleading use of this quotation? You are using material from a newspaper article. There is no author given, but the title of the article is "Was Emerson lying to his constituents?," published in the  Edmonton Journal  on Feb. 14, 2006, on p. A2. Which is the proper parenthetical citation for this

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

EC Policy on VAT Assessment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

EC Policy on VAT Assessment - Essay Example Nonetheless, the players in the financial services sector have emerged in recent years as among the largest groups of companies in the world and, despite this fragmentation, financial service companies as a group have become by far the most profitable in the world. For example, the UK-based financial services conglomerate HSBC and Barclays are among the world's largest corporations. For this reason, the European Commission in the 1990s took up a plan to include financial services and insurances in the value added tax (VAT) system for all member states, with the primary purpose of making the markets for financial services efficient. The plan was embodied in the Sixth VAT Directive of EC, part of the Financial Services Action Plan which was issued in 1977. Under the EC Treaty, all member states are obliged to adopt EC Directives into their own statutes although they can choose the forms or methods by which to implement them1. The 1977 VAT directive, however, was met with hostility by m ember states, which were reluctant to implement the tax measure. This paper tracks the difficulty of modernizing the VAT system for financial and insurance services for EU that would be acceptable to all and would advance the EC policy of promoting integration and competition in this industry for Europe's future growth in prosperity and employment. A critical evaluation of the compromise measure proposed by EC is in order as a way of contributing to the consultation process being conducted by the Commission to craft a more realistic and more acceptable VAT system for financial and insurance services. Thus, the paper attempts to present an opinion on whether the new VAT system proposed by EC will be more successful than the first. Problems & Issues Financial markets have developed in such a way that even interpretation of classic terms like credit gives rise to difficulties. The Commission services have been confronted with an increasing number of cases where economic operators and member states had problems in interpreting the definitions of exempt services under the Sixth VAT Directive. These cases often reflect the complexity of financial and insurance products, extending to questions such as whether there is a taxable supply and where the place of supply is located. The most serious objections to the imposition of VAT on financial services and insurance firms were the absence of a readily identifable mechanism for efficiently implementing the tax proposal, and the increase in consumer credit that it is expected to generate. Another issue raised against the imposition of VAT on customers of financial and insurance services was the way it offends political sensibilities2. The financial services industry, being engaged in the management of money, involves public interest because a bank run, for example, can harm a national economy. Thus, governments of EU member states carefully regulate the operation of these companies, such that in UK, the Financial Services Authority has been clothed with greater powers to go after financial services firms that mishandle their affairs and funds3. The difficulty for EC consisted mainly in the impossibility of establishing taxable amounts and the amounts of deductible VAT without

Why the South Lost the War Essay Example for Free

Why the South Lost the War Essay â€Å"A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved—I do not expect the house to fall—but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other. † These words, spoken by Abraham Lincoln during his campaign to be a senator from Illinois, ring eerily true with the truth about the country’s uncertain future. Only three short years after Lincoln gave this speech, civil war would break out between the northern and southern states, and it would end four years later with the South running away with its tail between its legs. Why did the South lose the war? The South entered into the Civil War unprepared to fight and, ultimately, was starting a fight it was destined to lose. In the end, there were five factors that led to the defeat of the South: The fundamental economic superiority of the North, a basic lack of sound military strategy strategy in the way the South fought the war, the inept Southern performance in foreign affairs, lack of a dominating civilian leader in the South, and President Abraham Lincoln (Hersch, 2002). The first contributing factor to the South’s loss of the war is the fact that the North had a fundamentally sturdier and superior economy. Economically, the Civil War was not a contest between equals. The South had no factories to produce guns or ammunition, and its railroads were small and not interconnected, meaning that it was hard for the South to move food, weapons, and men quickly over long distances. In addition, though agriculture thrived in the South, planters focused on cash crops like tobacco and cotton and did not produce enough food crops to feed the southern population (â€Å"Economy† 2004). The North, on the other hand, had enough food and enough factories to make weapons for all of its soldiers. It also had an extensive rail network that could transport men and weapons rapidly and cheaply. At first, this superiority of the North didnt seem to make much of a difference. Like many wars in history, those involved thought it would be over quickly. However, northern logistical capabilities would prove crucial as the war dragged on (â€Å"Economy† 2004). The second reason for Southern defeat was the fact that the South simply lacked any sort of coherent strategy, military of otherwise. Inferior strategies employed by the South included: the defense of Richmond, the defense of the coastal areas, gaining the Border States into the Confederacy, the offensive defense of taking the war into Maryland and Pennsylvania, blockade running and privateers, as well as efforts to gain diplomatic recognition (or assistance) from Britain and/or France (Resch, 2005). The South utilized the few resources it had effectively, but the Southern railroads could not keep up to the demands placed on it, unlike the Northern railroads, which grew during the war. These several problems hindered the South greatly in winning the war. One might stop and wonder why the South was not more proactive in finding solutions to these problems, but the answer is obvious: the South simply did not have the centralized power structure and decision makers necessary to remedy its struggling economy (Resch, 2005). Thirdly, the South struggled greatly in the area of foreign affairs. The South constantly attempted to become recognized by other nations as its own independent power, but over the course of the war not a single foreign nation would formally recognize the Confederacy. One such country was Britain. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was officially neutral throughout the American Civil War, 1861-65 (Harrison, 2005). The Confederate strategy for securing independence was largely based on British and French military intervention, which never happened; however intervention would have meant war with the United States. A serious conflict between Britain and the United States erupted over the Trent Affair in 1861; it was resolved in a few months (Harrison, 2005). The quandary of the South in the area of foreign affairs was caused by the fact that Jefferson Davis believed that the British dependence on textiles would force the British into an alliance with the South due to its abundant cotton resources. As president of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis, left foreign policy to others in government and, rather than developing an aggressive diplomatic effort, tended to expect events to accomplish diplomatic objectives (Harrison, 2005). The new president was committed to the notion that cotton would secure recognition and legitimacy from the powers of Europe. The men Davis selected as secretary of state and emissaries to Europe were chosen for political and personal reasons – not for their diplomatic potential (Hersch, 2002). This was due, in part, to the belief that the demand for cotton could accomplish the Confederate objectives with little help from Confederate diplomats. One positive in the Confederacy’s foreign affairs was its ability to employ the British shipyard (John Laird nd Sons) to build two warships for the Confederacy, including the CSS Alabama, causing vehement protests from the United States (Harrison, 2005). The controversy continued after the Civil War in the form of the Alabama Claims, in which the United States finally was given $15. 5 million in arbitration by an international tribunal for damages caused by British-built warships (Harrison, 2005). The British built and operated most of the blockade runners, spending hundreds of millions of pounds on them; but that was legal and not the cause of serious tension. In the end, these instances of British involvement neither shifted the outcome of the war nor provoked the U. S. into declaring war against Britain. The United States diplomatic mission headed by Minister Charles Francis Adams, Sr. proved much more successful than the Confederate missions, which were never officially recognized (Harrison, 2005). Fourthly, is the fact that the South did not possess a dominating civilian leader. The Confederacy was also not as unified as is commonly thought. Parts of the Confederacy were extremely loyal while others such as East Tennessee were hotbeds of Unionist activity (Resch, 2005). These citizens resisted Confederate drafts, and refused to pay Confederate taxes. Many of these Unionists formed groups of activists to resist the Confederate government. Confederate loyalists persecuted unionists in East Tennessee and in other areas (Resch, 2005). Nevertheless, internal opposition to the Confederacy hurt the stability of a region as well as undermined the war effort. These shortcomings in civilian leadership lead to the downfall of the Confederacy, because without the people supporting the cause or stepping up to participate in the war effort, there could be no hope of ever winning the war (Resch, 2005). Finally, the success of the South was ultimately doomed as soon as Abraham Lincoln took office as President. With the election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln on November 6, 1860, South Carolina, followed by six other states, seceded from the Union (Kelly, 2009). Even though his views about slavery were considered moderate during the nomination and election, South Carolina had warned it would secede if he won. This attitude was encouraged by the confederate leaders in the South, and it was this bigoted resentment that was a contributing factor to the start of the Civil War (Kelly, 2009). Lincoln agreed with the majority of the Republican Party that the South was becoming too powerful, and made it part of their platform that slavery would not be extended to any new territories or states added to the union. One could imagine how this would anger the South and cause them to feel threatened by the North. Here was a republican President from the North taking the side of the North in not allowing the South to expand its lucrative business of slavery. Lincoln perhaps single handedly started and ended the Civil War, whether implicitly or not. However, Lincoln was not the only reason the war started, he was only the final push the South needed to break away from the Union. More clear, however, is the fact that he did indeed the end the Civil War through his well-founded and composed politics and strategies. There were two major moves made by Lincoln that heavily influenced the outcome of the war, these were the Gettysburg Address and the Emancipation Proclamation (Kelly, 2009). The first was a moving and decided blow against the image of the South. Part of the address is as follows: â€Å"†¦Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate we cannot consecrate we cannot hallow this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth† (as stated in The Gettysburg Address 1863), The people could not ignore the words of President Lincoln, and the South could not refute them with any sort of fact. Truth be told, what Lincoln uttered in his address was the truth itself, and not even Jefferson Davis could argue that. And secondly was the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed all slaves in states of the Union; although this did not free every slave in the Continental U. S. it was a start and a colossal blow to the morale of the Confederate army as well as its citizens. The Union proved at that time that it was far more organized and unified in its cause because of the great leader it had in Abraham Lincoln (Kelly 2009). The fact that the South lost the Civil War has been a highly debated issue throughout the history of the United States and the reasons for this loss continue to be tossed around and discussed even to this day, however these five pervious factors consistently reemerge as reasons as to the defeat of the Confederate Army and their reentrance into the Union. The words that would best describe this are the words Lincoln used three years prior to the Civil War, â€Å"A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. † He was correct, it could not and would not stand divided; in the end the United States was one country and always would be.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Examining Cross Cultural Motivation in Employees

Examining Cross Cultural Motivation in Employees Motivation of employees is the essence for high performance in companies, which in turn ensures the competitively of a company, in todays world where global competition is fierce especially with Chinas growth. The poor performance of the European American countries on the other hand, makes it more difficult for them to compete with China. These are probably the consequences of extremely powerful labor unions that ensure employment protection of employees. Employment protection legislation, which is the set of rules on how to fire or hire an employee (Zientara, 2006), has often been the focus of studies explaining that its effect is high unemployment. However, no studies have been done on the effects of employment protection legislation on the attitudes and behavior of employees. On the other hand, Lebanon representing the Middle East is rarely concerned with employment protection and labor unions have very minimal influence in companies. So the purpose of my paper is to determine whether employees in a country where employment protection legislation are more motivated than a country with lenient regulations on employment protection. In order to achieve this study, I have conducted some in-depth interviews and prepared a questionnaire for companies of Lebanon Italy. In the end, the results of my study show that in fact employees that are highly protected by employment protection legislation are less motivated than employees where employment protection legislation is more lenient. Employees are the most important asset a company has, therefore motivating them is the best way to ensure high performance of a company and in turn increase the companies competitivity. Yet, Western Europe is facing a period of crisis where productivity is low and competitivity is decreasing. This is why, it is essential to ensure that all employees are motivated, which will ensure an increase in productivity. Indeed, between 1980 and 1995, Europe had an average labor productivity growth of 2.33% and in 1995 to 2001, it fell 1.37% (Evans, 2004). This causes delocalization of many companies to cheaper and more flexible countries or major labor cuts increasing the already heavy unemployment rate which is at 7.8% in Europe, against 4.6% in the US and 4.2 in Japan, according to the European statistical agency. This crisis also affects on employee motivation at work, where work loads increase to avoid employing new workers and therefore, avoiding all the complications of regulations. The actual situation in Europe is the consequence of powerful unions and very strict employment protection legislation. On the other hand, in the Middle East, the labors have very low employment protection legislation and labor unions have very miniature influence. While the Middle East differs from Western Europe regarding labors conditions; it also faces problems regarding employees behavior. Performance isnt at its highest rate either and often companies face the problem of employees working a minimum throughout the day. Both regions need to find a way to motivate employees in order to increase productivity. Yet, since companies in Europe accept and adapt to the employment legislation protection, the best way of ensuring productivity and therefore competitivity is by motivating employees to perform at the optimum level. A Cross-cultural study is necessary in order to understand better the causes and effects of low motivation. Therefore, I chose a region that could be considered quite different from the Western Europe (Italy): The Middle East. Indeed, as depicted by Hofstedes 5 cultural dimensions, the 2 regions have different values. However, few studies have been done on the rate of motivation and workers condition in the Middle East. One study entitled Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance in a Lebanese Banking Staff (Abou Zaki Crosssman, 2003), analyzed job satisfaction of employees in a Lebanese bank, but it didnt include an analysis of employee motivation. However, studying whether or not employees in the Middle East are motivated and how to increase their motivation is crucial in order to understand how to increase performance. According to Nicoleth (2000), Italy, which is the Western European country I will be studying, has been rated as the third strictest country in terms of employment protection legislation. Like other countries in Western Europe, Italys problem today is that it is losing its competitivity because laws of employment are too strict and wages are high. Since companies in Europe cannot change laws and cannot decrease wages, their only way of ensuring competitivity is by increasing productivity to a maximum. However, because employees in Western Europe are extensively protected, they perform just enough to guarantee that employer has no legal reason to lay them off. Therefore, productivity isnt at a level high enough to ensure competitivity. The only solution to encourage employees to be more productive would be to motivate them at work. On the other hand, Lebanon is the center for the Middle East with an opening to the Mediterranean. Being a modern country with both local and international companies, it is interesting to study this country. Furthermore, even though there are a few employment protection regulations, protection is applied and respected to a minimum level in Lebanon. Within this context, it is normal that employees, especially part timers, arent motivated to perform at their best, knowing that they could be fired at any moment. The actual motivation level of employees in both countries will be studied by using the Herzbergs Hygiene Theory. This theory will help me first of all to determine if employees at work are satisfied or dissatisfied, from these results I will determine if employees need intrinsic or rather extrinsic motivation. I am expecting to find that Italians arent dissatisfied but are not satisfied either. Therefore, they have a neutral attitude toward their jobs, whereas Lebanese employees experience dissatisfaction. According to these expectations, it is probable that Italian, lack intrinsic motivation whereas Lebanese lack both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The logic behind these conclusions will be discussed furthermore in my paper. H1: Italians need to be intrinsically motivated. H2: Lebanese need to be extrinsically motivated. The Job Design Theory will help me determine how jobs in each of the 2 countries should be designed in order to motivate employees. In order to do so, I will rank some characteristics that should be present in a job, according to the most motivating to the least motivating. The ranking will be based on the different intensity of motivation felt towards the different job characteristics. The final part of my paper will include recommendations on the best way a job should be designed in Lebanon and Italy, in order to ensure motivation. It is important to add that I am considering only these 2 theories because they respond best to the needs of my paper. Indeed, Maslows theory is not valid in theory and the ERG theory, is more valid than Maslows hierarchy, yet it also focuses on the needs of the employees only. The Goal Setting theory includes the motivational aspect of needs, yet is doesnt focus on the characteristics of the job. Herzbergs theory and the Job Design Theory best respond to the needs of this paper because both of these theories focus on characteristics within the job itself that can lead to motivation of employees. Jumping to the definition of employment protection legislation, according to Zientara (2006), it is the set of rules on how to hire and/or fire rising from both the labor legislation and the collective bargaining agreements. Its aim is to ensure a secure job for employees. Zientara explains that as employment protection legislation is stricter, firing an employee becomes more costly and therefore it damages the labor market performance. Therefore, the Italian legislation is very detailed in the 3 components of the employment protection legislation as the employer has limited power in withdrawing from the contract. Contrary to the Italian legislation, the Lebanese legislation is very vague and minimal as there are written laws concerning the protection of regular employees against dismissal and against collective dismissal. Yet there are no regulations concerning temporary employment, which already reduces the strictness of employment protection legislation. The only condition for an employer to dismiss an employee in Lebanon, is to give a compensation which is determined according to the nature of the work, the employees age, tenure, family and health conditions. When comparing the conditions imposed to employers for individual and collective dismissal and for conditions of temporary workers, it is clear that Italy is much stricter than Lebanon. It is important to add that: in Italy, appeal to the court is likely to see the judiciary take such a favorable view of the employees social or family problems that dismissal is commonly judge to be practically impossible. (Emerson, 1988, p.787). Whereas, in Lebanon, court costs a lot and labor unions power and effectiveness are so low that chances for an employee to win a case are little. The fact that strict employment protection legislation is still extensively applied in Italy, means that it does present several benefits. Society benefits because it avoids the payment of unemployment benefits (Zientara, 2006). In addition, it encourages employees loyalty and dedication toward the organization (Akerloff, 1984). Not to forget, it encourages companies to invest on training and upgrading the productivity of labors and furthermore, accepts technological changes and internal job mobility (Piore, 1989). On the other hand, strict employment protection legislation also presents some downfalls, which could explain the ongoing debate about it. First of all, strict employment protection legislation causes high unemployment rate since it discourages employers to easily dismiss employees and leaving the door open to prospective employees (Zientara, 2006). Furthermore, Italy cannot adapt to the changes of economic conditions (Emerson, 1988) which today present flexibility of employees and competitivity in the spotlight. Additionally, the low probability of being dismissed may have an adverse effect on employees whose effort and cooperation with others in the company will reduce (Emerson, 1988). No matter what the reasons of absenteeism are, the problems are that it causes reduction of productivity and that firing is too difficult because of strict employment protection legislation. This is why; the only solution to reduce effects of employment protection legislation on organizations product ivity is by increasing motivation. The economic climates of the past decades have cause d an increase in de-motivation at work. Indeed, downsizing and the rationalization of policies causes de-motivation (Gee Burke, 2001). All in all, change, uncertainty, lack of control and high work load are all causes for the increase in stress and therefore, the decrease in motivation. Yet motivation is the key for employees to exert 100% effort, which means performing as well as possible all the time (Gee Burke, 2001), this explains how motivation is related to performance. According to Robbins (2004), motivation is defined as a psychological process which consists of the persons intensity in terms of how hard he/she tries, the quality and intensity of the effort which is directed to the benefit of the organization and the persistence of the person in question. Motivation can be of two kinds: it can be extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic motivation is a tangible reward for a given performance (Adonis, 2007). Although it is very p owerful at first, extrinsic motivation quickly becomes an expectation and loses its effects. Indeed it motivates in the short run but doesnt consider the internal needs of the employee (Adonis, 2007). On the other hand, intrinsic motivation is triggered from inside the person by considering the needs of recognition and self-fulfillment of each individual through a sense of achievement, responsibilities, job satisfaction, involvement and empowerment (Adonis, 2007). In fact, intrinsic motivation is long term and aims at improving the morale of employees which in turn will increase the productivity by lowering absenteeism and increasing retention (Adonis, 2007). The Hygiene-Motivator Theory shows the factors that lead to dissatisfaction in a job and satisfaction. Factors that cause dissatisfaction which are called hygiene factors are extrinsic; these include working conditions, pay, policiesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦(Robbins, 2004) On the other hand, factors that are leading to job satisfaction are recognition, responsibilities, task achievement and other factors that are intrinsic. These factors are long term motivators (Gee Burke, 2001)à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Removing dissatisfying factors will not create a satisfactory job, but rather a neutral feeling towards the job. Indeed, factors that create satisfaction at work are different and separate from those causing dissatisfaction (Robbins, 2004). This is why, to cancel dissatisfaction at work, organizations must ensure hygiene factors that follow employees needs. To develop satisfaction at work, organizations must design jobs that include intrinsic motivators. The JDT, which I will now explain, provide compa nies towards the design of jobs, including the motivator factors stated in the motivation- hygiene theory. The Job Design Theory, developed by Oldham Hackman, shows 5 core dimensions that either increase or decrease motivation (Robbins, 2004) and they are the following: Skill Variety, Task Variety, Task Significance, Autonomy, and Feedback. According to JDT, motivation of employees through the 5 dimensions can be summarized as follows: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ internal rewards are obtained by individuals when they learn (knowledge of results) that they personally (experience responsibilities) have performed well on a task that they care about (experience meaningfulness). (Robbins, 2004, p.184) As the presence of these 3 psychological states increase so does motivation, performance and satisfaction. First, to motivate employee through autonomy, the organization must ensure a flexible job in terms of schedule, work sharing, and telecommunicating and it can be promoted through ideas and challenges (Garg Rastogi, 2005). In addition, to motivate employees, the HR department has the role of making the employees feel as the most valued asset of the organization (Garg Rabstogi, 2005, p.579). Further adding, to ensure motivation, employees must be recruited according to their knowledge, skills and abilities (Garg Rastogi, 2005). After conducting in-depth interviews, and surveys in both the Lebanese Italian market, it is time to show the results of my research. According to the results from the survey, Italian employees have a different feeling concerning intrinsic and extrinsic factors of motivation. The Italian rated intrinsic factors of motivation at an average of 4.97 over 7, this means that Italians dont feel dissatisfied. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation was graded as 3.94 over 7, which means that Italians are not satisfied at work. These numbers support hypothesis which states that Italian employees arent dissatisfied at work but are not satisfied either. The results extracted from the Lebanese sample shows a slight difference between extrinsic and intrinsic satisfaction. Extrinsic satisfaction for the Lebanese Is rated as 5.39 which show that Lebanese are not dissatisfied. Furthermore, intrinsic factors were graded at 5.21, which also show that Lebanese are satisfied at work. In other words, e mployees are not dissatisfied and even satisfied at work. These results contradict hypothesis 2, which expected Lebanese employees to be not satisfied and even dissatisfied at work. In fact, it can be seen clearly, that Lebanese feel much less dissatisfaction than Italians. Yet the major difference stands in the intrinsic level of motivation as there is gap between Lebanese who seem satisfied and Italians who are not. In terms of Turn-Over, Italians do not consider leaving their jobs, since the average turnover was 3.34 over 7 while Lebanese were graded as 3.52à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ so the intention of leaving their place at work is at the same level for both Italians and Lebanese, there are no flagrant differences. The feelings towards the different motivational characteristics of a job were all considered as interesting and motivating. Yet, small differences in averages enable us to determine preferences. As the table shows, the overall results are similar in Lebanon and Italy, yet two main ranking of characteristics vary. The first differences are in the first most motivating factors. Italians consider Task Significance as being the most motivating and then followed by the Task Identity. On the other hand, the Lebanese have a reversed feeling where Task Identity comes first before Task Significance. The second difference is in Task and Skill Variety. The results of the first part of the questionnaire enable me to lead to several conclusions which help me understand how employees in Lebanon and in Italy feel about their jobs. Furthermore, the results from the second part of the questionnaire can be a guide for designing jobs that will increase motivation. Yet, the results were affected by limitation during the research. The results extracted from the questionnaire seem to lead to the conclusion that in general, Lebanese workers are more satisfied than Italian workers with their jobs. Indeed, whether when analyzing the extrinsic or the intrinsic factors, Lebanese gave a higher average of motivation. Although Italians are not dissatisfied at work, they still remain at the verge of the neutrality since they rated extrinsic factors of motivation at 4.97 against Lebanese who gave a 5.39 average, which leads to a confident extrinsic satisfaction. Under the same tone, results show that Italians arent dissatisfied at work in terms of extrinsic motivation but yet again, it is a very minimal average of 3.97 which is very close to neutrality. Therefore, overall it can be concluded that Italians lack intrinsic motivation, which support H1. This further illustrates the fact that regardless of how strict employment protection legislation in a country, it doesnt ensure motivation of employees. On the other hand, L ebanese do not support H2 because the results show that they are satisfied both intrinsically and extrinsically. This could mean that on the contrary maybe employees are more motivated when employment protection legislation is more lenient. Results show that Italians and Lebanese dont consider quitting their jobs. In fact, the results are very close for both countries. Besides, they are both very close to the neutral point which demonstrates that the intention of remaining in the same company isnt a 100% there. Besides a very important contradiction is that Italians arent satisfied with their jobs but still they dont consider quitting their job more than Lebanese who are satisfied do. The results obtained from the second part of the questionnaire, although in general very similar between both countries, show a nuance of cultural differences in needs between Italians and Lebanese. Actually, it seems that Lebanese hold more importance to task identity which comes first before task significance. This means, that Lebanese would feel more motivated if they could put a name to their work. On the other hand, Task significance comes before task identity for the Italians, therefore, Italians are more motivated by the impact their job has on others whether inside or outside the companies. This is why, it can conclude that Lebanese are more self-centered regarding their jobs, whereas Italians are more centered towards others. Another difference can be observed concerning task and skill variety. In fact, results show that Italians would be more motivated by developing different skills than undertaking different tasks within their jobs. This means that Italians are more attracted to learning new techniques and methods of work and using them. On the other hand, Lebanese seem to care, more about using different tasks at work than about using different skills. This illustrates that Lebanese are more motivated by doing a number of different activities in order to complete their job. The rest of the characteristics are all ranked at the same level of importance for both countries. It is interesting to see that Italians and Lebanese consider knowledge characteristics as the least motivating. Therefore, they arent very concerned about learning and development. A very interesting point in relation to the Motivation Potential Score is that to motivate employees in Italy, the equation must be high in Task Significanc e more importantly in order to complete meaningfulness of the job. Task identity can also be added in order to enhance this psychological state. Autonomy and feedback must also be considered since they come in 3rd and 4th and they must complete the equation to ensure the motivation of employees. The Motivation Potential score equation for the Lebanese employees should be high in Task identity for meaningfulness of the job. Still under meaningfulness, task significance can be added but not as a priority. Of course, autonomy and feedback must be high in order to ensure motivation. The conclusions obtained enable us to understand the different needs of each country in order to motivate employees. According to the results, Italians seem to lack satisfaction at work. Therefore, managers in Italy should concentrate on intrinsic factors of motivation. In other words, employees must feel a sense of achievement, responsibility and furthermore, employees must feel recognition when they achieve something. Responsibilities can be developed through delegation and even more empowerment of employees who are given the possibility of participating in decision making concerning the company. Empowerment is more than delegation, it is the opportunity to take responsibility for a particular task and see it through its completion. (Hopkins, 1995, p.2) Achievements can be developed within the enterprise by listening to innovative ideas of employees and providing the means to put the idea to life when they have a potential of benefiting the enterprise. Another way of encouraging achievement is by supporting employees in completing their work. In order to complete the motivating aspect of achievem ents and responsibilities, recognition must be addressed. Indeed, recognition is a motivating factor that can be presented in the form of a simple thank you or more formally an award in front of the entire company with reasons for such a gesture (Hopkins, 1995). Managers in Italy can also use the results of this paper in order to design jobs that will increase motivation and performance of employees. Focusing on the conclusion obtained from the Motivation Potential Score equation of Italians, it can be understood that jobs in Italy should be high in Task Significance as a priority, high in autonomy and feedback. Therefore, a motivating job in Italy should include characteristics that show the significance of the job for others. Adding to this, employees should participate in important actions or events of the organization in order to feel that they count. This can be done through the participation in decision making, proposition of new ideas and state problems in the company. Anything, which shows how important the employees input, is for the company is a good way of grading high in Task Significance. Yet, Task Significance also includes impact employees have on the world outside the company. This can be done through the image of the organiz ation within the society such as social responsibilities and good reputation. In other words, employees must realize that their quality of work and performance helps in enhancing the reputation of the company. A program in the name of the company could also be developed where employees can participate in helping the society such as a cleaning the beach day. Another important motivational characteristic that could be present within a job is autonomy which can be developed by increasing freedom of employees in three aspects of the job: Work Scheduling through flexible schedules and flexible times of break, choice of part time jobs or shared jobs and even telecommunicating jobs when possible. Work Methodology, through the choice on how best to complete the job. Indeed, employees are those who perform that same job everyday, so they become specialized and very knowledgeable about it and this is why they are well placed to know the best way of conducting the task. Decision Making, concerning their part of the job. This can be through suggestion boxes or regular meetings where employees can share their concern or problems regarding their jobs and propose a plausible solution. The 3rd characteristic that should be included in the design of a job that will increase motivation is Feedback. Feedback can very simply be assured within a job. Programs such as annual or monthly evaluation of employee performance are a good way of developing feedback in a company. Yet, just listing a number or a grade to an employee isnt enough. In addition, managers should explain why weak evaluations results were obtained and give advices on how to perform better. Since the results show that Lebanese are satisfied at work, the only recommendation that can be given is in the Job Design. As mentioned before, autonomy and feedback are important characteristics that should be present in jobs in Lebanon and to respect the Motivation Potential Score equation which therefore increases motivation. Here, Task Identity plays a very important role for motivating the Lebanese. To include Task Identity in their jobs, The Lebanese managers must ensure that employees can complete an entire piece of work with which they can identify with. An example of task identity is a factory of radios where each employee can put his name on the back of the piece they produced. Task Identity is enhanced when employees feel responsible and are given responsibility for their work. It also increases the pride employees have for the work they perform. Of course, motivation can further be enhanced by including task significance characteristics which is graded as second in motiv ating Lebanese employees. Due to the limitations that this research can provide (lack of large number of responses in Lebanon, cultural tendency, anonymity, lack of commitment of companies), it would be interesting to re-proceed with this research with a larger sample in Lebanon, which is crucial for the specificity of the results. This same research, comparing to other countries would also be very interesting. Finally, this research focusing on the service sector is another interesting scope.