Monday, December 30, 2019

How Maps Can Distort Space and Deceive Us

Maps have become increasingly present in our everyday lives, and with new technology, maps are more and more accessible to view and to produce. By considering the variety of map elements (scale, projection, symbolization), one can start to recognize the innumerable choices that mapmakers have in creating a map. Why Maps Are Distorted One map can represent a geographical area in many different ways; this reflects the various ways in which mapmakers can convey a real 3-D world on a 2-D surface. When we look at a map, we often take for granted that it inherently distorts what it is representing. In order to be readable and understandable, maps must distort reality. Mark Monmonier (1991) puts forth exactly this message: To avoid hiding critical information in a fog of detail, the map must offer a selective, incomplete view of reality. Theres no escape from the cartographic paradox: to present a useful and truthful picture, an accurate map must tell white lies (p. 1). When Monmonier asserts that all maps lie, he refers to a maps need to simplify, falsify, or conceal the realities of a 3-D world in a 2-D map. However, the lies that maps tell can range from these forgivable and necessary white lies to more serious lies, which often go undetected, and belie the agenda of the mapmakers. Below are a few samples of these lies that maps tell, and how we can look at maps with a critical eye. Projection and Scale One of the most fundamental questions in mapmaking is: how does one flatten a globe onto a 2-D surface? Map projections, which accomplish this task, inevitably distort some spatial properties, and must be chosen based on the property that the mapmaker wishes to preserve, which reflects the maps ultimate function. The Mercator Projection, for example, is the most useful for navigators because it depicts accurate distance between two points on a map, but it does not preserve area, which leads to distorted country sizes. There are also many ways in which geographic features (areas, lines, and points) are distorted. These distortions reflect a maps function and also its scale. Maps covering small areas can include more realistic details, but maps that cover larger geographic areas include less detail by necessity. Small-scale maps are still subject to a mapmakers preferences; a mapmaker may embellish a river or a stream, for example, with many more curves and bends in order to give it a more dramatic appearance. Conversely, if a map is covering a large area, mapmakers may smooth out curves along a road to allow for clarity and legibility. They may also omit roads or other details if they clutter the map, or are not relevant to its purpose. Some cities are not included in many maps, often due to their size, but sometimes based on other characteristics. Baltimore, Maryland, USA, for example, is often omitted from maps of the United States not because of its size but because of space constraints and clut tering. Transit Maps: Subways (and other transit lines) often use maps that distort geographic attributes such as distance or shape, in order to accomplish the task of telling someone how to get from Point A to Point B as clearly as possible. Subway lines, for instance, are often not as straight or angular as they appear on a map, but this design aids the readability of the map. Additionally, many other geographic features (natural sites, place markers, etc.) are omitted so that the transit lines are the primary focus. This map, therefore, may be spatially misleading, but manipulates and omits details in order to be useful to a viewer; in this way, function dictates form. Other Manipulations The above examples show that all maps by necessity change, simplify, or omit some material. But how and why are some editorial decisions made? There is a fine line between emphasizing certain details, and purposefully exaggerating others. Sometimes, a mapmakers decisions can lead to a map with misleading information that reveals a particular agenda. This is apparent in the case of maps used for advertisement purposes. A maps elements can be strategically used, and certain details can be omitted in order to depict a product or service in a positive light. Maps have also frequently been used as political tools. As Robert Edsall (2007) states, some maps†¦do not serve the traditional purposes of maps but, rather, exist as symbols themselves, much like corporate logos, communicating meaning and evoking emotional responses (p. 335). Maps, in this sense, are embedded with cultural significance, often evoking feelings of national unity and power. One of the ways that this is accomplished is by the use of strong graphical representations: bold lines and text, and evocative symbols. Another key method of imbuing a map with meaning is through the strategic use of color. Color is an important aspect of map design, but can also be used to evoke strong feelings in a viewer, even subconsciously. In chloropleth maps, for example, a strategic color gradient can imply varying intensities of a phenomenon, as opposed to simply representing data. Place Advertising: Cities, states, and countries often use maps to draw visitors to a particular place by depicting it in the best light. A coastal state, for instance, may use bright colors and attractive symbols to highlight beach areas. By accentuating the coasts attractive qualities, it attempts to entice viewers. However, other information such as roads or city-size that indicate relevant factors such accommodations or beach accessibility may be omitted, and can leave visitors misguided. Smart Map Viewing Smart readers tend to take written facts with a grain of salt; we expect newspapers to fact check their articles, and are often wary of verbal lies. Why, then, dont we apply that critical eye to maps? If particular details are left out or exaggerated on a map, or if its color pattern is particularly emotional, we must ask ourselves: what purpose does this map serve? Monmonier warns of cartophobia, or an unhealthy skepticism of maps, but encourages smart map viewers; those that are conscious of white lies and wary of bigger ones. Sources Edsall, R. M. (2007). Iconic Maps in American Political Discourse. Cartographica, 42(4), 335-347. Monmonier, Mark. (1991). How to Lie with Maps. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Sunday, December 22, 2019

Diary Entries - 723 Words

Day 1: My day started as any other day. We all got on the plane, on our way too a place, I forgot the name. Then the next thing, the plane was in flames and we crashed on the island. I was climbing this hill when I heard this sound, I took the choirboys with me and we found this boy with a shell and a bunch of other boys crowded around him. We all introduced ourselves and three of us when off to find food. I was with Ralph and Simon, this boy, Piggy, wanted to come but I told him â€Å"no.† We found a pig, I was so close to killing it. â€Å"â€Å"I was choosing a place,† said Jack. â€Å" I was just waiting for a moment to decide where to stick it.†Ã¢â‚¬  ( Golding 31.) I couldn’t bring myself to kill that pig. The rest of the boys got mad, I told them i would†¦show more content†¦Ã¢â‚¬Å" That little un that had a mark on his face- where is- he now? I tell you I dont see him.† ( Golding 46 ). I don’t know who is gong to tell his parents. Thats all I got for now, until next time. -Jack Day 52: I am so proud of myself. I finally killed that darn pig. When we got to the fire on the hilltop, guess who was there, that Ralph. He got so mad then we let the fire go out. We just went to find a pig to eat. Simon didnt eat a piece, I threw a piece at him. I started yelling at all boys because I gave them food and they didnt eat. After I calmed down a bit, the hunting group started to reenact the killing of our pig. I slept good, my stomach was full. I was satisfied. - Jack Day 86: After what feels like years, but actually months. Things have taken a turn for the worst, the boys want me to be the leader, but i’m not sure if I can do it. Ralph doesnt want me to be chief, he thinks that is a bad idea because Im too reckless and, I want to get off this island as well as Ralph. He wants to be civilized and make shelters just in case we dont get off this island. He wants me to help, do I help, no way am I going to do work. 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Saturday, December 14, 2019

Gym Survey Free Essays

RHUL FITNESS SUITE SURVEY This is a survey, which aims at measuring the customer satisfaction and the current perception of the RHUL Gym. Please be aware that all data is completely anonymous and will not be shared with third parties, nor will you be contacted further. This will take only 2-3 minutes to fill in and will help us with our final year Marketing Research Project. We will write a custom essay sample on Gym Survey or any similar topic only for you Order Now Thank you very much for participating 1. Are you a member of the RHUL Gym? Yes/No 2. If no, why not? (If you are a member please select the N/A option) * I don’t do sports I visit another gym * I do an alternative type of sport * The RHUL gym doesn’t provide the equipment I need * I can’t afford it * Other:†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. * N/A 3. If yes, how many times a week do you visit the gym on average? (Please circle the number that applies to you) 0 – 1 – 2 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 7 4. How long have you been a member? – Less than 6 months – 1 year – 2 years – 3 years 5. What kind of membership do you have? – Early Riser (access to Gym and Classes until 15:00pm) – Gold (unlimited access to the gym and classes) – Pay as you go (individual ? payment for every visit) 6. What are your main goals in sport/as a member of the RHUL gym? * To keep fit and healthy * Bul k up * Aid training in other sports * To loose weight * Relax/Relieve Stress * Health reasons, such as rehabilitation etc. * Other (please specify):†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 7. What do you mainly use in the gym? * Aerobic Equipment * Cardio Equipment * Weights Room * Classes * Anything, depending on my mood 8. Can you please rate how you feel about the following factors related to the Gym (1 Not satisfied at all – 10 Completely Satisfied) Not Satistied at all Completely Satisfied – Available equipment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 – Available space 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 – Changing Rooms 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 – Showers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Gym Instruction 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 – Customer Service 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 – Atmosphere 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 – Classes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 – Opening hours 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -RHUL SPORT Website 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Accessibility 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 – Price 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 – Products on offer 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 9. Please finish the following sentences: – What I like most about the RHUL gym is†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. – What I like least about the RHUL gym is†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. – The RHUL gym needs more†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 10. How did you hear about the RHUL Gym? – Word-of-mouth recommendation Facebook – RHUL Website – Freshers’ Fare – Leaflets – Promoters – Other (please specify)†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 11. What year are you in? * First * Second * Third * Fourth * Postgraduate 12. Which department do you belong to? †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 13. What is your gender? * Male * Female * 14. What is your accommodation status? * Halls * Private Housing 15. Please share any additional comments about the RHUL Fitness Suite How likely are you to recommend the RHUL Gym to your friends? * Extremely Likely * Very Likely * Moderately Likely * Slightly likely * Not at all likely How to cite Gym Survey, Essay examples

Friday, December 6, 2019


GRENDEL FRANKENSTEIN AN ANALYSIS OF THE TWO MON Essay GRENDEL FRANKENSTEIN AN ANALYSIS OF THE TWO MONSTERS AND THEIR SUPERIORITY TO MANKINDGRENDEL FRANKENSTEIN AN ANALYSIS OF THE TWO MONSTERS AND THEIR SUPERIORITY TO MANKINDIn the desertI saw a creature, naked, bestial,Who, squatting upon the ground,Held his heart in his hands,And ate of it.I said, Is it good friend?It is bitter-bitter, he answered;But I like itBecause it is bitterAnd because it is my heart.-Stephen CraneThis reflects how both Grendel and Frankenstein must have felt during their lonely lives. Seeking friends, the fiends found enemies; seeking hope, they found hate(Neilson back page). The monsters simply want to live as the rest of us live. But, in our prejudice of their kind, we banish them from our elite society. Who gave society the right to judge who is acceptable and who is not? A better question might be, who is going to stop them? The answer, no one. Therefore, society continues to alienate the undesirables of our community. Some of the greatest minds of all tim e have been socially unacceptable. Albert Einstein lived alone and rarely wore the same color socks. Van Gogh found comfort only in his art, and the woman who consistently denied his passion. Edgar Allen Poe was different to say the least. Just like these great men, Grendel and Frankenstein do not conform to the societal model. Also like these men, Grendel and Frankenstein are uniquely superior to the rest ofmankind. Their superiority is seen through their guile to live in a society that ostracizes their kind, their true heroism in place of societys romantic view, and the ignorance on which societys opinion of them is formed.Grendel, though he needs to kill to do so, functions very well in his own sphere. Grendel survives in a hostile climate where he is hated and feared by all. He lives in a cave protected by firesnakes so as to physically, as well as spiritually, separate himself from the society that detests, yet admires, him. Grendel is the brute existent by which humankind lear ns to define itself(Gardner 73). Hrothgars thanes continually try to extinguish Grendels infernal rage, while he simply wishes to live in harmony with them.Like Grendel, Frankenstein also learns to live in a society that despises his kind. Frankenstein also must kill, but this is only in response to the peoples abhorrence of him. Ironically, the very doctor who bore him now searches the globe seeking Frankensteins destruction. Even the ever-loving paternal figure now turns away from this outcast from society. Frankenstein journeys to the far reaches of the world to escape from the societal ills that cause society to hate him. He ventures to the harshest, most desolate, most uninhabitable place known to man, the north pole. He lives in isolation, in the cold acceptance of the icy glaciers. Still, Dr. Frankenstein follows, pushing his creation to the edge of the world, hoping he would fall off, never to be seen or heard from again. Frankenstein flees from his father until the Doctors death, whereFrankenstein joins his father in the perpetual, silent acceptance of death.Frankenstein never makes an attempt to become one with society, yet he is finally accepted by the captain to whom he justifies his existence. Frankenstein tracks Dr. Frankenstein as to better explain to himself the nature of own being by understanding the life of his creator. Unstoppable, Frankenstein travels to the ends of the earth to destroy his creator, by destroying everyone Dr. Frankenstein loved (Shelley afterword). As the captain listens to Frankensteins story, he begins to understand his plight. He accepts Frankenstein as a reluctant, yet devoted, servant to his master. Granted that Frankenstein does not belong, he is accepted with admiration by the captain. The respect that Frankenstein has longed for is finally given to him as he announces his suicide in the name of his father, the late Dr. Frankenstein.On the other hand, Grendel makes numerous attempts to assimilate into society, but h e is repeatedly turned back. Early in his life, Grendel dreams of associating with Hrothgars great warriors. Nightly, Grendel goes down to the meadhall to listen to Hrothgars stories and the thanes heroism, but most of all, he comes to hear the Shaper. The Shapers stories are Grendels only education as they enlighten him to the history of the society that he yearns to join. The Shaper changed the world, had torn up its past by its thick gnarled roots and had transmuted it, and they, who knew the truth, remembered it his way- and so did Grendel(Gardner 43). UponGrendels first meeting with Hrothgar, the great hero tries to kill him by chopping him out of a tree. The king (Hrothgar) snatches an ax from the man beside him and, without any warning, he hurls it at Grendel(Gardner 27). After being attacked by those he so admires, he turns against them to wreak havoc on their civilization.The more that society alienates Grendel and Frankenstein, the more they come to realize the invalidity of social heroism. As Grendels oppressors see it, heroism consists of the protection of ones name, the greater glory of their line, and most of all, their armor collection. Beowulf, so movingly compounded with self-vindication, looks to care for his own name and honour(Morgan xxxi-xxxii). According to Frankensteins time, a hero is someone who protects their ladys name, earns greater glory for themselves and their country, and has a large collection of prestigious degrees to hang on their walls. Social heroism is not a single event, it is properly defined as a revolution. It is an on-going, ever-changing series of heroic events. This revolution is not the substitution of immoral for moral, or of illegitimate violence for legitimate violence; it is simply the pitting of power against power, hero against hero, where the issue is freedom for the winners and enslavement of the rest(Gardner 119). This revolution is built on intimidation by the powerful of society to oppress the undesirabl es. Murder and mayhem are the life and soul of the revolution(Gardner 118).This revolution is most evident in John Gardners Grendel. In Hrothgars meadhall, his thanes are discussing the heroic revolutionwith the Shaper. According to the Shaper, the kingdom, those in power, pretends to be protecting the values of all people. Supposedly, the revolution causes the kingdom tosave the values of the community-regulate compromise-improve the quality of the commonwealth. In other words,protect the power of the people in power and repress the restIt rewards people who fit the System best. The Kingsimmediate thanes, the thanes top servants, and so on till you come to the people that dont fit in at all. No problem. Drivethem to the darkest corners of the kingdom, starve them,arrest and execute a few, or put them out to war. Thats how it works. (Gardner 118)In Grendels time, violence is the common denominator in all righteousness. The incitement to violence depends upon total transvaluation of the ordinary values. By a single stroke, the most criminal acts may be converted to heroic and meritorious deeds(Gardner 117). Certainly the only difference between appalling acts of violence and heroic deeds is the matter of who commits them. What might be appropriate for a king would be unheard of by a peasant. This is obviously a social commentary that fits today as well, if not better, than it did then. The rich and powerful still succeed in oppressing the poor and helpless in every culture around the world. If the Revolution ever comes to grief, it will be because the powerful have become alarmed at their own brutality(Gardner 117). Then, as the rich descend, the poor will riseto power in order to complete the revolution. The total ruin of institutions and heroism is in itself an act of creation(Gardner 118). To break the circle would cause evolution, forward progress, that would enhance the natural progress of mankind. But, according to Gardner, this will never happen because the powerful enjoy their present state of grace; and when they helpless rise up, they are immediately repressed in a cry of common good(Gardner 119).Though not as overt as Grendel, the concept of revolution is also displayed in Frankenstein. Frankensteins society ostracizes its undesirables by chasing them to the darkest corners of the world in much the same way that Grendels society does. Frankenstein is driven from his birthplace by his creator only to find that he must hide in shadowed allies to avoid social persecution. In the theme of revolution, the rich control what is acceptable, and to them, Frankenstein definitely does not fit the mold. Next, Frankenstein seeks asylum in the barn of a small farmer. The place where he finds refuge is a cold, dark corner symbolic of how society forces the non-elite from their spheres to places where they cannot be seen, nor heard, and therefore do not exist. After Frankenstein saves the starving family by harvesting their crops, they repay h im by running him off their land. This incident repeats itself throughout Frankensteins journeys. Finally, Frankenstein is forced into the cold wasteland of the Arctic circle. In this uninhabitable place there is no one to persecute him. Yet the doctor maliciously continues to follow Frankenstein, hoping to completely destroy his creation. When Dr.Frankenstein dies, his monster is the first to come to lay his body to rest and follow him into the afterlife.Frankenstein fits the idea of a true hero, rather than the romantic view of heroism shared by society. He is chivalrous, loyal, and true to himself. Frankenstein shows his chivalry by helping a family in need and still accepting their hatred of him. He acts to help others although he receives nothing in return. Frankenstein holds absolute loyalty to his creator. Dr. Frankenstein shuns his creation, Frankenstein, and devotes his life to killing the monster, yet Frankenstein is the first to show respect to his fallen master after his death. Frankenstein builds a funeral pyre to honor his master and creator who despised him during his life. Frankensteins loyalty extends as far as the ritual suicide he commits while cremating the body of his creator. Most importantly, Frankenstein is true to himself. Society wishes that he would cease to exist, so their opinion is irrelevant to him. His creator shuns him, but Frankenstein learns to cope with his own emotions in order to support himself. Frankenstein relies solely on what he believes in, not in what society believes to be important. His actions are based upon his own assessment of situations, rather than what is socially acceptable.Grendel is also isolated from society, and his actions also classify him as a true hero. Like Frankenstein, Grendel has little outside influence and has to rely on his own emotions to make decisions. Grendel possesses bravery, yet he does not have the foolish pride of Beowulf. The first virtue of heroism is bravery,but even more, it is blind courage(Nicholson 47). Grendel is the epitome of blind courage. For example, when the bull attacks Grendel, he simply calculates the bulls movements and fearlessly moves out of the way. Even when the bull rips through his leg, Grendel is not afraid. Grendel repeatedly charges into the meadhall and destroys its best warriors without a second thought. Grendel even has the courage to taunt Hrothgars bravest thanes by throwing apples at them. Grendel breaks up their wooden gods like kindling and topples their gods of stone(Gardner 128). It is this type of blind courage that Grendel believes saves his life in battle. Fate will often spare a man if his courage holds(Gardner 162). Beowulf, on the other hand, is foolish in his approach to battle. He goes to fight an immortal opponent, the dragon, and is killed because of his pride. His very valor, wisdom, and magnanimity, expended unstindtly, lead only to a heros grave in a land soon to be conquered(Brodeur 105). Grendels blind courag e is far superior to the blind stupidity of Beowulf.Just as societys heroes fight foolishly, their opinions are made by prejudice and reflect the ignorance of humankind. Both monsters are seen as the minions of evil, and even of Satan himself. Grendel is placed in a Biblical lineage of evil reaching back to the first murder(Hamilton 105). Even the author of the poem alludes to the descent of the race of Grendel from Cain(Donaldson 1688). Frankenstein is proposed to be of accursed origin(Milton 130). However, neither of the two can be properly defined as Satanic,especially on the information known to the rest of society. Continuing, this belief causes extended prejudice of the monsters even in our society today.Through the predetermined opinions of society, Grendel is seen as an evil come to destroy all of mankind. Grendel is a victim of society, he was not born inherently evil. Woe to him who is compelled, through cruel persecution, to thrust his soul into the embrace of fire, to ho pe for no solace(Kennedy 9). Society unduly restrains Grendel to heinous stereotypes that he does not fit. For example, another character more closely fits the description of Cain than Grendel. The only one of the personages of the poem who is clearly said to be destined to suffer in hell is Unferth, who, in his responsibility for the death of his brothers, has committed the sin of Cain(Brodeur 218). Clearly, it is not Grendel that should be condemned. He only tries to assimilate into society, but after being continually rejected he turns to violence in response to societys hatred of him. Similar to Grendel, Frankenstein is also pictured as satanic. Brooks concurs in saying that society views Frankenstein to be a unique creation, like Adam united by no link to any other being in existence'(Milton 129), yet by his condition more resembling Satan(210). There are times when he scarcely seems to be of this earth(Venables 59). Also like Grendel, Frankenstein was not born evil, he was for ced into his way of life by the society that rejected him. After this rejection, Frankenstein like the arch-fiend, bore ahell within him(Shelley 136). To each man his own god, and to each man his own devil as well. Frankenstein, like Coleridges wedding guest, leaves a sadder and wiser man'(Scott 201). He now better understands his existence and how society wrongfully rejects it. Frankenstein simply wants society to have the knowledge that might enable him to make them overlook the deformity of his figure(Shelley 114). Man how ignorant art thou in thy pride of wisdom!(Shelley 201).Grendels and Frankensteins superiority to humankind is made obvious by their ability to live in a society that has ostracized them, the monsters true heroism in place of humankinds romantic view, and the ignorance on which societys opinion of the monsters is based. The monsters not only embody our fears of the way certain entities can artificially pervert nature in ourselves and our society, they also speak to us knowledgeably of nature and in a human voice, to tell us we need not be afraid of them(Scott 201). Gattaca the movie and discrimi Essay